Unending Thanks

Thanks must be given to a huge number of people who helped us, not only with material for DL4 but also to survive long summer and winter days as the project seemed to grow and grow. Firstly, acknowledgement goes to both Blackrock College and St. Joseph of Cluny for providing our computer and internet facilities.   From these schools special thanks must be given to John Daly (Blackrock College), Joanna Dullaghan (St. Joseph of Cluny), Fr. Cormac O’Brolcháin (Principal, Blackrock College) and Mary White (Principal, St. Joseph of Cluny) who put up with our nagging problems and complaints through thick and thin.  On the more technical side we would like to express our gratitude to (in no particular order):

·        Mr. Al Globus, Mr.Bryan Yager and everyone else at NASA AMES who makes this competition possible.

·        Amanda Harris and Dr. Herb Shivers of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Centre who helped us get access to papers that would otherwise have been beyond our reach,

·         Dr. Ian Elliott of Dunsink Observatory (Dublin Institute of Advanced Studies) who stayed interested throughout and was always willing to help,

·         Dr. Oliver Hainaut and Itta Frothkopf of the European Southern Observatory for facilitating our most bizarre publication requests.  Jorge Ianiszewski (European Southern Observatory) for putting us in contact with them,

·         Gerry Aylward (Blackrock College) for such instantaneous, unfaltering help,

·         Cynthia Ceillier (Blackrock College) for her unquestioning courier services,

·         Colm Mealy and Flor Madden (Blackrock College) for immediate advising voices,

·         Alan MacGinty (Blackrock College) for the generous use of his printer,

·         Bob Miranda of Cognizant Communications Corporation (Life Support and Biosphere Science) who went out of his way to help,

·         Milkirk Investors for planning regulation figures,

·         Vernon Harvey of Swales Aerospace (Beltsville, MD) for pointing us in the right direction,

·         Dr. Charles He and Dr. Henning Leidecker of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Centre for providing a depth of insight that we would have been unable to obtain otherwise,

·         Gerry O'Brien (and family) for putting up with multiple visits from Mark,

·         Jeffrey Butler of Hot Cell Services who was willing to assist five complete strangers 7,000 miles away,

·         Liz Venebles of the European Space Agency and Mercedes des Esteves Filho both of whom kept a constant interest even when there seemed to be no light at the end of the tunnel,

·         The staff of ENFO (Department of Environment and Local Government, Ireland) especially Majella,

·         Sharon Devin for her interest and useful comments,

·         Cahill Printers, especially Eamonn Tynan, for their generous services,

·         All those who have organised or granted us permission to reproduce pictures: Kathy Rawson (NASA Microgravity News), Michelle Justesen (Kistler Aerospace Corporation), Marty Curry (NASA DFRC), Geoffrey V. Hughes (Rotary Rocket Company), Tom Kessler (Boeing), Mike Combs, Linda Hertz (Scientific American), Jim Frees (NASA MSFC), Peter Wainwright (Space Future) and John Mankins (NASA HRST Programme). [We regret not being able to contact the following people/organisations prior to printing - Alfred T. Kamajian, Thomas C. Moore, Space Access LLC and Peter Eckart (Life Support and Biospherics)].

Finally, to our parents and friends, who have not only put up with us for the duration of this project but for many years previously as well.  We are also thankful to an unending list of people who were kind enough to publish books, internet sites and papers about space settlements.  Our apologise to anyone who’s work goes unnamed in the following list but it has sometimes proven difficult when we depend so much on the anonymous powers of the internet (URL’s are provided wherever possible).  We hope our list of references (in no particular order) will help anyone attempting this competition in years to come.


1         (34b) The L4 and L5 Lagrangian Points (http://www-spof.gsfc.nasa.gov/stargaze/Slagrng2.htm).

2         Aggie Horticulture (

3         Analysis of the results of two-year operations of the Munich Dust Counter – a Cosmic Dust Experiment on board the satellite HITEN, A. Hüdepohl, H. Iglseder, E. Grün, R. Münzenmayer, H. Svedhem, H. Mizutani, T. Yamamoto, A. Fujiura, H. Araki.

4         Artemis Data Book (http://www.asi.org/adb/).

5         Choosing Plants to be grown in a controlled Environment Life Support System (CELSS) Based Upon Attractive Vegetarian Diets, Frank B. Salisbury, Mary Ann Clark, Volume 2, Number 3/4, 1996, Life Support and Biosphere Science.

6         CLC1, David Pan, Bing Zhao, Akira Irie, Aleksey Cherman (http://clc1.freeservers.com/final1/).

7         Notes on Copper-Tungsten Radiation Shielding (http://rk.gsfc.nasa.gov/richcontent/General_Application_Notes/Shielding.pdf).

8         Crew Habitable Element Space Radiation Shielding for Exploration Missions, P. D. Campbell (http://www-sn.jsc.nasa.gov/explore/Data/Lib/DOCS/EIC008.HTML).

9         Digging In and Taking Cover, NASA Space Science News (http://es91-server1.msfc.nasa.gov/newhome/headlines/msad20jul98_1.htm)

10     Epicurious Food Dictionary (http://www1.epicurious.com/run/fooddictionary/home).

11     Feasability of Space Based Observations of the Kordylewski Clouds, N. S. Moeed, J. C. Zarnecki.

12     Finding a Commercial Development Path for Getting People in Space, David V. Smitherman, Jr.

13     Food Processing on a Space Station: Feasability and Opportunities, Dmitriy V. Zasypkin, Tung-Ching Lee, Volume 6, Number 1, 1999, Life Support and Biosphere Science.

14     Hot Cell Services – Radiation Shielding Window, Technical Data.

15     Implications of Molecular Nanotechnology Technical Performance Parameters on Previously Defined Space System Architectures, Thomas Lawrence McKendree (http://nano.xerox.com/nanotech/nano4/mckendreePaper.html).

16     Lab-Scale CELSS (http://brad.arc.nasa.gov/LSC.html).

17     Lead Technical Information (http://www.leadinfor.com/TECH/tech.html).

18     Life Support and Biospherics, Peter Eckart.

19     Lunar Oxygen – Ground Truth and Predictions (http://www-sn.jsc.nasa.gov/explore/Data/LEONews/leo195/lunox.htm).

20     Lunar Soil Science (http://web.ukonline.co.uk/a.buckley/soildata.htm).

21     Magnetic Radiation Shielding, Geoffrey A. Landis (http://www.islandone.org/Settlements/MagShield.html).

22     Mars Trans Hab Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Shield Performance Assessment, JSC 27892, Glen Shortliffe, Eric Christiansen.

23     Microwave Anisotropy Probe, The Lagrange Points (http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/html/lagrange.html).

24     NASA SSP 30362.

25     Orbits of Trojan Asteroids, G. A. Chebotarev, N. A. Belyaev, R. P. Eremenko.

26     PERMANENT (http://www.permanent.com).

27     Photographische Untersuchungen des Librationspunktes L5 im System Erde-Mond, K. Korylewski, 1961.

28     Plant Answers (

29     Radiation Protection of New Lightweight Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Materials Determined (http://www.lerc.nasa.gov/WWW/RT1995/5000/5480g.htm).

30     Red Mars, Kim Stanley Robinson.

31     NASA SSP 30362 (1990) from Regenerative Life Support – Inputs and Outputs (http://ucs.orst.edu/~atwaterj/io.htm).

32     SCORE, Nyssa Stephanie Rene Woods (http://www.nas.nasa.gov/Services/Education/SpaceSettlement/Contest/Results/97/winner.html).

33     Senior Biology, Siobhán Scott, Folens.

34     Soaps, Detergents and Cleaning (http://wwwchem.csustan.edu/chem1002/soapexp.htm).

35     Space Exploration Initiative Automation and Robotics Trade Study.

36     Space Settlement Designer’s Corner (http://science.nas.nasa.gov/Services/Education/SpaceSettlement/designer/).

37     Space Settlements: A Design Study, NASA/Ames 1975 (http://www.nas.nasa.gov/Services/Education/SpaceSettlement/75SummerStudy/Table_of_Contents1.html).

38     SPACE/MATH – Constants and Equations for Calculations (http://www.ksc.nasa.gov/facts/faq04.html).

39     Spaceflight Radiation Health Programme at JSC (http://srag-nt.jsc.nasa.gov/docs/TM104782/techmemo.htm).

40     TDRS Systems: Thermal Control (http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/shuttle/archives/sts-70/orbit/payloads/tdrs/sys/thermal.html).

41     The Babylon Project, Thomas Beatty, David Peters (http://science.nas.nasa.gov/Services/Education/SpaceSettlement/Contest/Results/98/winner/).

42     The L5 Development Group, Inc. (http://www.l5-development.com/what-is-L5.html).

43     The Space Settlement Page, Mike Combs (http://members.aol.com/oscarcombs/spacsetl.htm).

44     Encyclopaedia Britannica Online (http://www.britannica.com)

45     Tucson Space Society L5 (http://www.azstarnet.com/public/nonprofit/tucl5/).

46     Vegetable Identification Index (http://www.multimedia.calpoly.edu/cagr/crsc/vegID/plants.htm).

47     Vegetables, Ann Bonar, Tiger Publications.

48     Vegetarian Cookbook, Sarah Brown.

49     Life Support and Biosphere Science, Volume 4, Number 3/4, 1997.

50     The Problem of Space Travel: The Rocket Motor (http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-4026/contents.html).

51     U.K. New Housing Development Planning Guidelines.

52     League of Women Voters Parks Study (http://www.open.org/~lwvor/parks2.htm).

53     Dublin Corporation: Profile: Service Statistics (http://www.dublincorp.ie/profile/stats.htm).

54     Austuralian Sports Facilities - Sports Dimensions for Playing Areas (http://www.ausport.gov.au/ausfc/dimplay.html).

55     Colorado State Parks (http://parks.state.co.us/).

56     Mega High Rise Elevators, James W. Fortune.

57     Linear Motor Driver Vertical Transport Systems, January 1999, Elevator World.

58     St. Vincent’s Hospital, Dublin.

59     Lunar Launch Systems Comparison, Bruce Soluski.

60     Mass Driver Destination, Gregory R. Bennett.

61     Herbs: An Indexed Bibliography, J. E. Chadwick, A. F. Chadwick and L.E. Craker, 1984.

62     Survey of readers of Medical Herbalism, ‘93-’94.

63     The Herb Hunters’ Guide, Misc. Publ. No. 77 USDA, Washington D.C., A. F. Sievers, 1930.

64     Medicinal Herbs Online (http://www.egregore.com/herb/herbhome.htm).

65     Edible Flowers, Cathy Barash.

66     Leaving Certificate Economics, Denis O’Grady.

67     75/25: Ireland in an Increasingly Unequal World, Colm Regan, Editor.

68     International Space Station Handbook.

69     The Way to Go in Space, Tim Beardsley, February 1999, Scientific American.

70     X-38 Technology (http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/Projects/X38/index.html).

71     International NASA Space Station Science and Research Disciplines web page.

72     Wireless Power Transmission, Bill Brown.

73     Solar Power Satellites, Peter E. Glaser.

74     A Fresh Look at Solar Power Satellites, J. Mankins (http://www.tier.net/SUNSAT/freshlook2.htm).

75     NASA Watch – Solar Power Satellites (http://www.reston.com/nasa/solar.sats.html).

76     An Evolutionary Path to SPS, Geoffrey A. Landis (http://www.islandone.org/Settlements/EvolutionaryPathSPS.html).

77     PV Power Resource Site (http://www.pvpower.com/).

78     Power Technology Space Applications site (http://powerweb.lerc.nasa.gov/DOC/space-apps.html).

79     Mars Academy (http://www.marsacademy.com/).

80     Wardrobe Refractories Pty. Ltd. (http://www.iform.com.au/corp/wardrobe/tables.htm#4).

81     Cyborgs and Space, Clynes and Kline.

82     Space Physiology and Countermeasures, Offices of Life and Microgravity Science Applications (http://www.olmsa.hq.nasa.gov/).

83     Seaweed Pictures and Descriptions (http://www.seaweed.ie/descriptions/default.html).

84     Senior Physics, George Porter, Folens.

85     Department of Health, Ireland.

86     Surgeon General’s statement on Community Water Fluoridation (http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/oh/flintro.html#general).

87     National and International Organisations that endorse or support Water Fluoridation (http://www.ultranet.com/~wboh/fluoride/support.htm).

88     American Dental Association ‘Fluoridation Facts’ (http://www.ada.org/consumer/fluoride/facts/intro.html).

89      STOP Fluoridation USA (http://www.rvi.net/~fluoride/index.htm).

90     Eurydice – The Information Network on Education in Europe (http://www.eurydice.org/Eurybase/files/dossier.htm).

91     Distance Learning, Jacques Babot.

92     Rotary Rocket Company (http://www.rotaryrocket.com).

93     VentureStar/X-33 Site (http://www.venturestar.com).

94     Kistler Aerospace Corporation (http://www.kistleraerospace.com).

95     Tethers Unlimited Incorporated (http://www.tethers.com).

96     Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicle Press Release, Boeing (http://www.boeing.com/defense-space/space/propul/SOTV.html).

97     Understanding Microgravity Discipline Brochure (http://mgnews.msfc.nasa.gov/db/understanding_ug/understanding_ug.html).

98     Space Future – A Fresh Look at Space Solar Power: New Architectures, Concepts and Technologies (http://www.spacefuture.com/archive/a_fresh_look_at_space_solar_power_new_architectures_concepts_and_technologies.shtml).

99     Space Solar Power Technology, MSFC Activities (http://www1.msfc.nasa.gov/CHARTS/pdf/176-c.pdf).

100  Space Settlements and New Forms of Governance, A Space Society Lecture, Jim Dator

101  Space Studies Institute (http://www.ssi.org/).

102  Solid-State Shear Extrusion Pulverisation for Recycling Commingled Plastic Waste, Klementina Khait (http://www.p2pays.org/ref/01/00571.pdf).


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